Binary package (recommended)
PyPI has installers for Windows, Linux, and macOS. We aim to provide binary packages for the three latest minor versions of Python 3.x.
To install the Python interface of igraph globally, use the following command (you might need administrator/root privileges):
$ pip install igraph
If you prefer to install igraph in a user folder using a virtual environment, use the following commands instead:
$ python -m venv my_environment $ source my_environment/bin/activate $ pip install igraph
As usual, if you do not want to activate the virtualenv, you can call the
executable in it directly:
$ python -m venv my_environment $ my_environment/bin/pip install igraph
Packages are kindly provided by conda-forge:
$ conda install -c conda-forge python-igraph
Like virtualenv, Conda also offers virtual environments. If you prefer that option:
$ conda create -n my_environment $ conda activate my_environment $ conda install -c conda-forge python-igraph
Package managers on Linux and other systems
igraph’s Python interface and its dependencies are included in several package management systems, including those of the most popular Linux distributions (Arch Linux, Debian and Ubuntu, Fedora, GNU Guix, etc.) as well as some cross-platform systems like NixPkgs or MacPorts.
igraph is updated quite often: if you need a more recent version than your
package manager offers, use
conda as shown above. For bleeding-edge
versions, compile from source (see below).
Compiling igraph from source
You might want to compile igraph to test a recently added feature ahead of release or to install igraph on architectures not covered by our continuous development pipeline.
In all cases, the Python interface needs to be compiled against a matching version of the igraph core C library.
Compiling using pip
If you want the development version of igraph, call:
$ pip install git+https://github.com/igraph/python-igraph
pip is smart enough to download the sources from Github, initialize the
submodule for the igraph C core, compile it, and then compile the Python
interface against it and install it. As above, a virtual environment is
a commonly used sandbox to test experimental packages.
If you want the latest release from PyPI but prefer to (or have to) install from source, call:
$ pip install --no-binary ':all:' igraph
If there is no binary for your system anyway, you can just try without the
--no-binary option and
obtain the same result.
Compiling step by step
This section should be rarely used in practice but explains how to compile and
install igraph step by step without
First, obtain the bleeding-edge source code from Github:
$ git clone https://github.com/igraph/python-igraph.git
Second, go into the folder:
$ cd python-igraph
(it might have a slightly different name depending on the release).
Third, if you cloned the source from Github, initialize the
git submodule for the igraph C core:
$ git submodule update --init
If you prefer to compile and link igraph against an existing igraph C core, for instance
the one you installed with your package manager, you can skip the
git submodule initialization step. If you
downloaded a tarball, you also need to remove the
vendor/source/igraph folder because the setup script
will look for the vendored igraph copy first. However, a particular
version of the Python interface is guaranteed to work only with the version
of the C core that is bundled with it (or with the revision that the
submodule points to).
Fourth, call the standard Python
setup.py script, e.g. for compiling:
$ python setup.py build
(press Enter when prompted). That will compile the Python interface in a subfolder called
build/lib.<your system-your Python version>, e.g. build/lib.linux-x86_64-3.8. You can add
that folder to your
PYTHONPATH if you want to import directly from it, or you can call the
script to install it from there:
$ python setup.py install
setup.py script takes a number of options to customize the install location.
Testing your installation
The unit tests are implemented with the standard
unittest module so you can
run them like this from your the source folder:
$ python -m unittest discover
Q: I am trying to install igraph on Windows but am getting DLL import errors
A: The most common reason for this error is that you do not have the Visual C++ Redistributable library installed on your machine. Python’s own installer is supposed to install it, but in case it was not installed on your system, you can download it from Microsoft.
Q: I am trying to use igraph but get errors about something called Cairo
A: igraph by default uses a third-party called Cairo for plotting. If Cairo is not installed on your computer, you might get an import error. This error is most commonly encountered on Windows machines.
There are two solutions to this problem: installing Cairo or, if you are using a recent versions of
igraph, switching to the
matplotlib plotting backend.
$ pip install pycairo
The Cairo project does not provide pre-compiled binaries for Windows, but Christoph Gohlke maintains a site containing unofficial Windows binaries for several Python extension packages, including Cairo. Therefore, the easiest way to install Cairo on Windows along with its Python bindings is simply to download it from Christoph’s site. Make sure you use an installer that is suitable for your Windows platform (32-bit or 64-bit) and the version of Python you are using.
To check if Cairo is installed correctly on your system, run the following example:
>>> import igraph as ig >>> g = ig.Graph.Famous("petersen") >>> ig.plot(g)
If PyCairo was successfully installed, this will display a Petersen graph.
2. Switch to matplotlib: You can configure igraph to use matplotlib instead of Cairo. First, install it:
$ pip install matplotlib
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> import igraph as ig >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots() >>> g = ig.Graph.Famous("petersen") >>> ig.plot(g, target=ax) >>> plt.show()
To use matplotlib for a whole session/notebook:
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> import igraph as ig >>> ig.config["plotting.backend"] = "matplotlib" >>> g = ig.Graph.Famous("petersen") >>> ig.plot(g) >>> plt.show()
To preserve this preference across sessions/notebooks, you can store it in the default configuration file used by igraph:
>>> import igraph as ig >>> ig.config["plotting.backend"] = "matplotlib" >>> ig.config.save()
From now on, igraph will default to matplotlib for plotting.